A chronic or persistent disorder of the mental processes caused by brain disease or injury and marked by memory disorders, personality changes, and impaired reasoning.
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure. The lipopigment pattern seen most often in CLN2 consists of 'curvilinear' profilesTest Details
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure.Test Details
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare and fatal condition that affects the brain. CJD appears to be caused by an abnormal infectious protein called a prion. These prions accumulate at high levels in the brain and cause irreversible damage to nerve cells, resulting in loss of intellect and memory, change in personality, loss of balance and co-ordination, vision problems and blindness as well as abnormal jerking movements.Test Details
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult onset of one or both of these features in an affected individual, with significant intrafamilial variation. The disorder is genetically and pathologically heterogeneous. Patients with C9ORF72 repeat expansions tend to show a lower age of onset, shorter survival, bulbar symptom onset, increased incidence of neurodegenerative disease in relatives, and a propensity toward psychosis or hallucinations compared to patients with other forms of ALS and/or FTD. Patients with C9ORF72 repeat expansions also show psychiatric disturbances that may predate the onset of dementia.Test Details
Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome (GSS) is a very rare, usually familial, fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects patients from 20 to 60 years in age. It is characterized by an adult onset of memory loss, dementia, ataxia, and pathologic deposition of amyloid-like plaques in the brain.Test Details
Alzheimer disease is the most common form of progressive dementia in the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the neuropathologic findings of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and extracellular amyloid plaques that accumulate in vulnerable brain regions.Test Details
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is characterized by multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle. The most common clinical features include adult onset of weakness of the external eye muscles and exercise intolerance. Additional symptoms are variable, and may include cataracts, hearing loss, sensory axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, hypogonadism, and parkinsonism. Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance can occur; autosomal recessive inheritance is usually more severe.Test Details