Urethritis

Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra. That's the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. Pain with urination is the main symptom of urethritis. Urethritis is commonly due to infection by bacteria. It can typically be cured with antibiotics. Most episodes of urethritis are caused by infection by bacteria that enter the urethra from the skin around the urethra's opening. Bacteria that commonly cause urethritis include: • E. coli and other bacteria present in stool; • Gonococcus, which is sexually transmitted and causes gonorrhea; • Chlamydia trachomatis, which is sexually transmitted and causes chlamydia; The herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2) can also cause urethritis. Trichomonas is another cause of urethritis. It is a single-celled organism that is sexually transmitted. Sexually transmitted infections like gonorrhea and chlamydia are usually confined to the urethra. But they may extend into women's reproductive organs, causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). In men, gonorrhea and chlamydia sometimes cause epididymitis, an infection of the epididymis, a tube on the outside of the testes. Both PID and epididymitis can lead to infertility.

<p> <b>ANDROFLOR</b> </p> <p> Diseases of the male genital tract are the leading cause of male reproductive function impairment. This defines their social and economic significance, especially taking to account current decrease of birthrate. </p> <p> Considering the clinical and social significance of the male genital tract diseases, their slight symptoms or asymptomatic clinical course as well as importance of equivalent medical research of both partners having reproductive system impairment, we offer an <b>unique technology Androflor</b> that allows diagnosing combined infection and inflammatory disease of male genital tract. </p> <p> According to Tenth Revision of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) the list of male genital tract diseases which can be caused by combined infection and inflammation include following diseases: </p> <p> • Nonspecific urethritis; </p> <p> • Other urethritis; </p> <p> • Urethral syndrome, unspecified; </p> <p> • Enlarged prostate; </p> <p> • Acute prostatitis; </p> <p> • Chronic prostatitis; </p> <p> • Orchitis and epididymitis; </p> <p> • Balanitis; </p> <p> • Induration penis plastica; </p> <p> • Inflammatory disorders of seminal vesicle; </p> <p> • Inflammatory disorders of spermatic cord, tunica vaginalis and vas deferens. </p> <p> Obligate pathogens and viruses are considered the main etiologic factors of combined infection and inflammation process. Most frequently recognized pathogens are: </p> <ul> <li> Neisseria gonorrhoeae, </li> <li> Chlamydia trachomatis, </li> <li> Trichomonas vaginalis, </li> <li> Mycoplasma genitalium, </li> <li> Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 and 2 </li> <li> in the last few years there have been many reported the increased disease-causing role of <b>opportunistic microorganisms: Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Haemophilus, Candida etc</b>. </li> <li> <b>Specimen </b>for screening<b>:</b> </li> <li> epithelial cells scrapes from the balanus; urethra; • urina; • prostatic fluid; • ejaculate; • biopsy samples from prostatic tissues. </li> <li> <b>ATTENTION!</b> To exclude any biases in microflora composition analysis, caused by transient microflora, the three-day sexual continence or safe sexual contact is recommended before sampling. </li> <li> For etiological diagnosis of <b>urethritis</b>, balanoposthitis and therapy monitoring of these diseases the recommended sample materials are<b> urethral scrapes</b>, prepuce of penis scrapes,<b> urine</b> (the first void urine can be used only for pathogens identification); </li> <li> For etiological diagnosis of <b>prostatitis, male infertility</b> and therapy monitoring of these diseases the recommended sample materials are <b>prostatic fluid</b>, residual urine after prostate milking, <b>ejaculate</b> and prostate biopsy. </li> <li> *The prostate milking is strictly prohibited when acute prostatitis is suspected. </li> </ul>

Test Details
Description:
In vitro nucleic acid amplification test for qualitative and quantitative detection of bacterial / viral DNA in the clinical material using PCR / Real - Time PCR.
Delivery Time:
2 days
Sample:
Urine; Ejaculate;
Alternative:
External epithelial swab/ Urethral swab/ Prostate secretion / Proastate biopsy;

<p> Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites. C. trachomatis includes three human biovars, but Serovars D-K – cause urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, neonatal pneumonia, and neonatal conjunctivitis. Chlamydia is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in the world and can cause serious complications if not treated. Screening for, diagnosing, and treating chlamydia is very important in preventing long-term complications and spread of the infection to others. <a href="/documents/tests/133/Chlamydia.en.pdf">Read more</a> </p>

Test Details
Description:
Serological test (Ig G) + In vitro nucleic acid amplification test for qualitative detection of bacterial DNA in the clinical material using PCR.
Delivery Time:
5 days
Sample:
Blood serum + Endo - / Exocervical swab / Urethral swab/ Urine / Prostate secretion / Ejaculate;
Alternative:

<p> </p> <p> Candida albicans is a yeast-like fungus that is often found in the mouth, vagina, and intestinal tract; it is a normal inhabitant of humans that typically does not have any adverse effects. Changes to vaginal acidity and the balance of organisms can occur due to antibiotics, diabetes, pregnancy, hormonal therapy, contraceptives, or an impaired immune system. When that happens, Candida cells can multiply unchecked, resulting in a yeast infection.<a href="/documents/tests/118/Candida-albicans.pdf" target="_blank">Read more</a><a href="http://documents/tests/118/Candida-albicans.pdf" target="_blank">.</a> </p> <p> </p>

Test Details
Description:
In vitro nucleic acid amplification test for qualitative detection of bacterial or viral DNA in the clinical material using PCR.
Delivery Time:
2 days
Sample:
Vaginal swab /External epithelial swab/ Urethral swab/ Urine / Prostate secretion / Ejaculate;
Alternative:

<p> Chlamydia is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in the world and can cause serious complications if not treated. Screening for, diagnosing, and treating chlamydia is very important in preventing long-term complications and spread of the infection to others. <a href="/documents/tests/109/Chlamydia.en.pdf" target="_blank">Read more</a> </p>

Test Details
Description:
In vitro nucleic acid amplification test for qualitative detection of bacterial or viral DNA in the clinical material using PCR.
Delivery Time:
Sample:
Endo - / Exocervical swab / Urethral swab/ Urine / Prostate secretion / Ejaculate;
Alternative:
In case of HPV infection: biopsy specimens from Condyloma acuminatum in physiological solution

Test Details
Description:
In vitro nucleic acid amplification test for qualitative detection of bacterial or viral DNA in the clinical material using PCR.
Delivery Time:
1-2 days
Sample:
Vaginal swab /External epithelial swab/ Urethral swab/ Urine / Prostate secretion / Ejaculate;
Alternative:

<p> Mycoplasma hominis; Mycoplasma genitalium; Ureaplasma urealyticum; Ureaplasma parvum; </p> <p> Mycoplasma and ureaplasma are types of bacteria that can be transferred from one person to another through sexual contact, however they are not classed as sexually transmitted infections. </p> <p> There is limited knowledge surrounding these type of infections and any long term damage they may cause.<a href="/documents/tests/113/MycoplasmaUreaplasma.pdf" target="_blank"> Read more</a> </p> <p> </p>

Test Details
Description:
In vitro nucleic acid amplification test for qualitative detection of bacterial or viral DNA in the clinical material using PCR.
Delivery Time:
1-2 days
Sample:
Endo - / Exocervical swab / Urethral swab/ Urine / Prostate secretion / Ejaculate;
Alternative:
In case of HPV infection: biopsy specimens from Condyloma acuminatum in physiological solution

<p> Chlamydia trachomatis; Mycoplasma hominis; Mycoplasma genitalium; Ureaplasma urealyticum; </p> <p> Mycoplasma and ureaplasma are types of bacteria that can be transferred from one person to another through sexual contact, however they are not classed as sexually transmitted infections. </p> <p> There is limited knowledge surrounding these type of infections and any long term damage they may cause. <a href="/documents/tests/114/MycoplasmaUreaplasma.pdf" target="_blank">Read more</a> </p> <p> Chlamydia is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in the world and can cause serious complications if not treated. Screening for, diagnosing, and treating chlamydia is very important in preventing long-term complications and spread of the infection to others.<a href="/documents/tests/114/Chlamydia.en.pdf" target="_blank"> Read more</a> </p> <p> </p>

Test Details
Description:
In vitro nucleic acid amplification test for qualitative detection of bacterial or viral DNA in the clinical material using PCR.
Delivery Time:
1 day
Sample:
Endo - / Exocervical swab / Urethral swab/ Urine / Prostate secretion / Ejaculate;
Alternative:
In case of HPV infection: biopsy specimens from Condyloma acuminatum in physiological solution

<p> </p> <p> Mycoplasma hominis Mycoplasma genitalium Ureaplasma urealyticum </p> <p> Mycoplasma and ureaplasma are types of bacteria that can be transferred from one person to another through sexual contact, however they are not classed as sexually transmitted infections. </p> <p> There is limited knowledge surrounding these type of infections and any long term damage they may cause. <a href="/documents/tests/112/MycoplasmaUreaplasma.pdf" target="_blank">Read more</a> </p> <p> </p>

Test Details
Description:
In vitro nucleic acid amplification test for qualitative detection of bacterial or viral DNA in the clinical material using PCR.
Delivery Time:
Sample:
Endo - / Exocervical swab / Urethral swab/ Urine / Prostate secretion / Ejaculate;
Alternative:
In case of HPV infection: biopsy specimens from Condyloma acuminatum in physiological solution

Test Details
Description:
In vitro nucleic acid amplification test for qualitative and quantitative detection of bacterial / viral DNA in the clinical material using PCR / Real - Time PCR.
Delivery Time:
1-2 days
Sample:
Endo - / Exocervical swab / Urethral swab/ Urine / Prostate secretion / Ejaculate;
Alternative:

Neisseria gonorrheae; Chlamydia trachomatis;

Test Details
Description:
In vitro nucleic acid amplification test for qualitative detection of bacterial or viral DNA in the clinical material using PCR.
Delivery Time:
1-2 days
Sample:
Endo - / Exocervical swab / Urethral swab/ Urine / Prostate secretion / Ejaculate;
Alternative:
In case of HPV infection: biopsy specimens from Condyloma acuminatum in physiological solution

Test Details
Description:
In vitro nucleic acid amplification test for qualitative detection of bacterial or viral DNA in the clinical material using PCR.
Delivery Time:
1-2 days
Sample:
Vaginal swab /External epithelial swab/ Urethral swab/ Urine / Prostate secretion / Ejaculate;
Alternative:

Test Details
Description:
In vitro nucleic acid amplification test for qualitative detection of bacterial or viral DNA in the clinical material using PCR.
Delivery Time:
1-2 days
Sample:
Vaginal swab /External epithelial swab/ Urethral swab/ Urine / Prostate secretion / Ejaculate;
Alternative:

Test Details
Description:
In vitro nucleic acid amplification test for qualitative detection of bacterial or viral DNA in the clinical material using PCR.
Delivery Time:
1-2 days
Sample:
Vaginal swab /External epithelial swab/ Urethral swab/ Urine / Prostate secretion / Ejaculate;
Alternative: