Urology

  • Prostate cancer
  • Prostate cancer affects the prostate gland, the gland that produces some of the fluid in semen and plays a role in urine control in men. The prostate gland is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. Regular testing is crucial as the cancer needs to be diagnosed before metastasis. Fast facts on prostate cancer: • The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system. • Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. • It is treatable if diagnosed early, before it spreads. • If symptoms appear, they include problems with urination. • Regular screening Is the best way to detect it in good time. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer affecting men. There are usually no symptoms during the early stages of prostate cancer. However, if symptoms do appear, they usually involve one or more of the following: • frequent urges to urinate, including at night • difficulty commencing and maintaining urination • blood in the urine • painful urination and, less commonly, ejaculation • difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection may be difficult Advanced prostate cancer can involve the following symptoms: • bone pain, often in the spine, femur, pelvis, or ribs • bone fractures

  • Prostatitis
  • Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland. The inflammation can be due to an infection as well as other various causes. Prostatitis can be an acute illness or a chronic condition, The NIH consensus definition and classification of prostatitis is: Acute bacterial prostatitis: Caused by a bacterial infection and it typically starts suddenly and may include flu-like symptoms. It is the least common of the four types of prostatitis. Chronic bacterial prostatitis: Described by recurrent bacterial infections of the prostate gland. Between attacks, the symptoms might be minor or the patient may even be symptom free, however it can be difficult to treat successfully. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: Most cases of prostatitis fall into this category; however, it is the least understood. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome can be described as inflammatory or noninflammatory, depending upon the presence or absence of infection-fighting cells in the urine, semen, and prostatic fluid. Often no specific cause can be identified. The symptoms can come and go or remain chronically. Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis: This condition is often diagnosed incidentally during the work-up for infertility or prostate cancer. Individuals with this form of prostatitis will not complain of symptoms or discomfort, but they will have the presence of infection-fighting cells present in semen/prostatic fluid.

  • Urethritis
  • Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra. That's the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. Pain with urination is the main symptom of urethritis. Urethritis is commonly due to infection by bacteria. It can typically be cured with antibiotics. Most episodes of urethritis are caused by infection by bacteria that enter the urethra from the skin around the urethra's opening. Bacteria that commonly cause urethritis include: • E. coli and other bacteria present in stool; • Gonococcus, which is sexually transmitted and causes gonorrhea; • Chlamydia trachomatis, which is sexually transmitted and causes chlamydia; The herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2) can also cause urethritis. Trichomonas is another cause of urethritis. It is a single-celled organism that is sexually transmitted. Sexually transmitted infections like gonorrhea and chlamydia are usually confined to the urethra. But they may extend into women's reproductive organs, causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). In men, gonorrhea and chlamydia sometimes cause epididymitis, an infection of the epididymis, a tube on the outside of the testes. Both PID and epididymitis can lead to infertility.