Neonatology is a subspecialty of pediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn. It is a hospital-based specialty, and is usually practiced in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The principal patients of neonatologists are newborn infants who are ill or require special medical care due to prematurity, low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital malformations (birth defects), sepsis, pulmonary hypoplasia or birth asphyxia.
- Neonatal infections
Neonatal infections are infections of the neonate (newborn) during the neonatal period or first four weeks after birth. Neonatal infections may be contracted by transplacental transfer in utero, in the birth canal during delivery (perinatal), or by other means after birth. Some neonatal infections are apparent soon after delivery, while others may develop postpartum within the first week or month. Some infections acquired in the neonatal period do not become apparent until much later such as HIV, hepatitis B and malaria.