NBIA5, sometimes referred to as 'static encephalopathy of childhood with neurodegeneration in adulthood (SENDA),' is an X-linked neurodegenerative disorder characterized by global developmental delay in early childhood that is essentially static, with slow motor and cognitive gains until adolescence or early adulthood. In young adulthood, affected individuals develop progressive dystonia, parkinsonism, extrapyramidal signs, and dementia resulting in severe disability. Brain MRI shows iron accumulation in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. A characteristic finding is T1-weighted hyperintensity surrounding a central band of hypointensity in the substantia nigra. Cerebral and cerebellar atrophy are also observed.
Epilepsy, Brain Malformations, Dystonia
Confirmation of a clinical diagnosis, Carrier testing in unaffected family members